Ph. D., Marine Science, University of Auckland Institute of Marine Science, Auckland, New Zealand, 2015. Dissertation: “Enhancing larval survival and re-introduction techniques for Tridacnidae (giant clams): Reversing a path toward extinction”.

M. E. S. (Master’s in Environmental Science), The Evergreen State College, Olympia, WA, USA. Thesis title: “Biological responses of juvenile Tridacna maxima (Mollusca: Bivalvia) to increased pCO2 and ocean acidification”.

M. A., Corporate Communications, Fairfield University, Fairfield CT, USA, 1982. Thesis title: “Effectively communicating technical information to lay audiences”.